Fire and smoke extraction simulations create accurate predictions nowadays for the emergence and propagation of smoke and heat in a building - a substantial aspect of the building design.
Major Security Aspect
Given the fact, that fires in buildings cause more than 90 percent of deaths by smoke inhalation and suffocation, then the issue of smoke extraction can be hardly disregarded. Especially the first few minutes of a fire are critical to the protection of persons. Therefore, a special attention should be paid to the smoke extraction in fire safety concepts. The partially considerable smoke damages to buildings as a result of the complete fuming have not to be underestimated in aspects of economic significance.
Therefore the goal of planning should be to obtain precise knowledge of how fires and fumes are disseminating. In that case, the smoke extraction can be designed so that in a wide variety of conditions - such as open windows and doors, the operating air conditioning - a quick withdrawal of the fume gases is ensured.
The “ifes” determines with the help of modern methods, computational fluid dynamics, relatively accurate predictions for the emergence of smoke and heat and its propagation in a building. The CFD tool (Computational Fluid Dynamics) enables three-dimensional examination of complex flow processes.
- fire and smoke extraction simulations with box models
- demonstrating the functionality of the fire safety concept
- optimization of the structural, technical and organizational fire protection
- transient calculation of fume distribution
- transient calculations of the temperature
- transient calculation of the fire resistance of components
Holistic approach to life and health
To enable the self-rescue of persons in a building in case of a fire, it is important during planning to ensure that the escape routes remain smoke-free, or at least low-smoke. Smoke and heat extraction systems can ensure a quick smoke extraction in the event of a fire. In the early planning stage of a building the evidence and the operability of an adequate smoke extract is the most important part of the fire safety concept.
Optimization of fire safety regulations and smoke extraction
The planning of fire safety in buildings and the evaluation of the necessary fire safety levels are particularly directed by the early application of engineering principles and methods. When considering complex buildings, the existing policies and regulations are partly too general to assess the interactions of fire and the flue gas development. Therefore we apply calculation methods when creating a smoke extraction concept, in particular, the interaction between
- ventilation and fire scene
- smoke and air supply
- smoke and exhaust
- thermal and ambient pressure
Fire simulations verify the smoke extraction on its operability and feasibility
In recent years, the method of fire simulation with the help of zone or field models has been generally accepted. For complex field models, the numerical flow simulation is applied. So that smoke, temperature, and pressure history can be calculated to a relating function of time.
We analyse, for example,
- the height of the low-smoke layer
- the temperature distribution
- the distribution of the flue gas concentration
- the temporal and spatial evolution of the flue gas propagation
At an early stage we are able to determine the required smoke exhaust dampers and outlet openings with our fire and smoke extraction simulations. We analyse the smoke source in captured room regions and recommend structural and technical proposals on smoke control systems for escape routes. On the basis of videos we can visualize the smoke propagation and develop the necessary measures in discussion with all those involved in planning and scheduling. Particularly advantageous is the extensive experience for many years, we were able to gain in the context of large projects. In this way we are able to ensure a reliable and economic planning for complex buildings and large atriums.